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This article is will educate practitioners on the possibilities that botulinum toxin type A can offer their patients, such as effectively tightening and lifting the lower face and neck, using neuromodulators. The author will review ageing factors, discuss anatomy and physiology, explore the mechanism of action of botulinum Toxin type A on the muscles injected, as well as the antagonistic effect on the opposing muscles, and list common complications and how to avoid or manage them. After reading this article, practitioners will understand the mechanism of action for botulinum toxin type A in the lower face and neck and be more comfortable safely offering this service to their patients. Using botulinum toxin type A for re-contouring and re-draping of the face and neck is a novel and effective approach for aesthetic practitioners.
Treating the lower face and neck with neuromodulators: benefits and complications